Yeah what's on the kale is gray cabbage aphid. I usually get them in the cooler months, so I a bit surprise you have them now in San Diego.
I wanna say that white mark on the cuke stem looks suspiciously like slug trail to me, but the tan discoloration on the leaves are probably start of fungal issues, so you need to spray. White pitting could be sucking insects like aphids or something underneath the leaf.
...brown spotty things along the stem in the last picture and in the 2nd picture are aborted female cucumber blossoms.
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