and the fact that you rinsed them off right away suggests to me that they will be fine!!
Culinary vinegar that you cook with is only mildly herbicidal anyway. If you really want to kill weeds you need to look for horticultural vinegar that is more concentrated.
Question: If the difference is that the culinary vinegar is diluted with more water, would it not work just to let it sit somewhere in an open container and evaporate some water out? Or simmer it on the stove for awhile to drive water out? Would you not then end up with something like horticultural vinegar?