That definitely looks like "Cedar Apple Rust" to me (& I should know, since it's a serious problem here in VA). Don't know where you are located, but if you have junipers &/or cedars in your area, that's the natural host for this fungal disease. Where I'm located, we've given up on growing apples due to our property being deeply surrounded by Virginia Cedar trees. When the galls appear on the cedar trees (which will be happening soon here), they look like aliens from outer space - tennis-ball size spheres covered with bright neon-orange jelly-like tentacles. Shortly thereafter, the yellowish/rust/orange slightly-raised spots start appearing on apple leaves. (Thankfully, so far our one remaining apple - a weeping crabapple - has managed to dodge the bullet.)
Here are a couple of links to get you started, but there are plenty more on the internet to look at:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnospor ... irginianae
https://www.caf.wvu.edu/kearneysville/di ... omcar.html
If you do have a large juniper/cedar population in the area, there isn't a whole lot you can do outside of using certain fungicides on a regular basis &/or growing the few apple varieties that are supposed to have some resistance.
My body is a temple. Unfortunately, it's a fixer-upper.