Looks like this was a good idea
Starting small and easy is the way to go. You don't want to set yourself to fail and be discouraged.
Start monitoring the temperature in the area you are planning to use. If you have those sunny windows, you may be able to use the solar heat. But I have found that a dedicated light is critical for the first couple of weeks of seed growth to keep them from getting spindly. Did you see the picture of clamp on utility light I use in one of the other threads? Those are less than $10 at auto or farm supply (sold as chicken brooder lamp). If you can get the 10" one it will be enough to supply light for four 4" pots which can be used as community seed starter pots.
Or you can use aquarium light 15-18" fluorescent tubes. You should be able to get them used on Craigslist or free cycle. Most hobbyists are upgrading to t-5 (1/2" diameter high intensity tube) fixtures so older t-8's should be easy to find. You might end up getting a full aquarium system this way, but don't think to use the aquarium as a container -- there are various reasons for not. It's not hard to rig something to hand those lights under a shelf.
In both cases, the expense will be for new light bulbs.
Out of the seeds you have, I think the ones I highlighted would be good starters. Basil will want to be warm in the 70's don't try if the area is going to be constantly in the 60's or get down in the 50's near the window.
HERB SEEDS HAVE
VEGETABLE SEEDS HAVE
Cauliflower, Snowball x
Lettuce, Green Salad Bowl
Onion, White Lisbon Bunching
Pepper, California Wonder (Bell)
Pepper, Grand Bell Mix
Pepper, Jalapeno (Red)
FLOWER SEEDS HAVE
Forget Me Not (Heirloom Variety)
Out of the herbs and vegs you want, there are a few I can recommend that you try growing.
If you know someone who has them, mint, lemon balm, and oregano can be easily rooted from fresh sprigs. Mint and oregano should be available at the grocery store. You can also try rooting basil and thyme from the grocery store.
For scallions/onion greens, cut the bottom of an onion in a generous pyramid shape, including all of the hard root area, then cut off the point. Snuggle the bottom of that in potting mix so just the top surface is showing above the soil. In no time at all, you'll have greens growing that you can snip off to use for cooking. You can do this with garlic and shallots too. They will need to be close to the window (directly on the windowsill) so they stay cool.
This is probably enough to get started with. (BTW you might want to go with Swiss Chard instead of lettuce. Lettuce is really whimsy when grown inside unless you use oscillating fan. Also do you have a cat? My cats eat the lettuce if I try to grow them anywhere that they can get to.
Why don't you plan on starting the cauliflower and broccoli in January, and peppers and then maybe tomatoes in February? Then they will be ready to plant outside in March and late April or early May at proper planting time. You could try growing them in containers if you don't have anywhere to plant in the ground.