Agree, it's hard to imagine a vine that is vigorous enough to provide a dense sound barrier, that wouldn't grow through.
Ignoring the not growing through part, Virginia creeper is a nice native vine that clings, spreads rapidly, gets pretty dense, has nice fall color and berries that birds like.
Trumpet creeper is another native vine. It gets HUGE. Takes a couple years to get well established, then takes off and grows like mad. Gets very dense, has flowers that hummingbirds and bees like, followed by seed pods that stay closed until after a few frosts, then open up and have thousands of seeds that goldfinches and other birds like. Don't make the mistake I did and plant it anywhere near your house!