You know, that's the funny thing. I mentioned in another thread that my Hot Pepper Bed peppers were explored by the moles a few days after I planted. Practically every plant had a mole hole next to it. The plants were your basic transplant size so they weren't tiny but they weren't very big either. I just added more potting soil mix over the holes and watered in. Now I do this when I notice them, but there have been occasions when I might not have noticed. They explore some of my containers too.
Maybe they particularly like this potting soil.
I'm getting used to seeing mole holes next to my plants. But usually, the plants don't seem to suffer. Since these moles don't leave a "hill" on the surface, maybe the tunnels aren't leaving gaping airspaces as one might think. And I am really beginning to think they don't dig/rip through the roots willy-nilly but part the roots like curtains as they go.
Knock on wood, I don't have voles. Do the moles defend their tunnels/territory as long as they live in them? Do the voles move into empty burrows?