It is a very mixed bag of annuals and perennials, warm weather crops and cool weather crops, stuff that is usually started from seed indoors and stuff that isn't. It really helps to sort it all out.
Cool weather stuff that I usually start ahead indoors (as Eric said this is climate dependent-- the longer growing season you have, the less need for starting ahead indoors): Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower.
Cool weather stuff that I would usually just plant directly in the ground: Beets (and other root crops, like carrots, which do not transplant well), lettuce, peas, swiss chard. Quick growing stuff does not benefit as much from the head start as the slower things.
Warm weather crops to start indoors: Eggplant, okra [note okra has heavy, hard seed coats which need to be soaked over night before planting], peppers, tomatoes. Zucchini is kind of optional. I do start them ahead indoors, no more than one week ahead of average last frost date, maybe at the average frost date. They need the soil well warmed up before they go in it. But they grow very fast, so many people just plant them directly in the ground once the soil is warm. Soy and other beans are fast growing warm weather crops that are usually just planted in the ground, when the soil is warm.
The artichokes are tender perennials and are tricky to grow in cooler climates, so it totally depends on where you are. Here's some info about them:
https://www.organicgardening.com/learn-a ... artichokes
Strawberries are almost never grown from seed. They are very slow from seed- the seeds take a month to germinate and then don't produce until at least the next year, maybe the third. Strawberry plants are sold everywhere very cheaply. They are perennials and need a bed of their own.
To me, one of the most important things to know in gardening, especially growing things from seeds, is when to plant what. If you start your broccoli too late, once the weather warms up, it will bolt and just produce flowers instead of heads. If you start your tomatoes too early, the plants will get too big and leggy waiting for good weather. People can give you approximations based on your area, but you will get better over time with experience of your particular climate/ micro-climate.
This is a very ambitious list that will require a lot of growing space. If you don't have a lot of experience in growing things, I would recommend scaling the list back a bit. It is always better to have success with a small plot of a few veggies, than start a huge garden and have it over-run with weeds & pests and get discouraged.
Have a great gardening year coming up!