False! The only way that water droplets can cause burn is if they're not actually touching the surface of the leaves. Drops that are intact with the surface can't burn because the water has a cooling effect. Light can't focus on the leaf because there's no distance to focus the intensity.
Those wet leaves can't cause burn like that.
Look at the results section of this experiment:
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1 ... 150.x/full
Now, if a plant is hairy, and water droplets may float on those hairs, then burn may occur because of the focusing distance and the inability for the water to have contact cooling effect.
It's all about how you interpret the study. The language says water droplets on smooth leaves are "unlikely" to cause "much" damage. That certainly includes the ability the cause some damage.
This article, for example, interprets the results as proving that, yes, water droplets can cause damage (as you yourself said, in the right circumstances like if there are tiny hairs on the leaves. Maybe the water cupped in a strange way at those spots on the pepper leaves? Maybe peppers do have microscopic hairs? Either way the study actually does the opposite of debunking.):
https://www.scientificamerican.com/podc ... -10-01-12/
Given that I've done this move and watched leaf burn happen, and it looks exactly like the OP's damage, I'll stick to my opinion.