Ditto on what has been said
carrots, onions, and garlic. and most root crops are cool season crops.
Onions and garlic are usually planted in the fall and you need to get the right variety for your area.
Carrots can be planted year round but are best in the cooler months. They mature in about 70-90 days. They need to be planted about 1 inch apart. For the most part carrots are relatively hard for me to grow in my climate and I don't have the space to grow enough for a year. They are cheap so I buy them instead. If you have a lot of space it might be worthwhile for you. Same with potatoes. They are relatively cheap and I cannot grow them well and I would rather grow sweet potatoes anyway.
Cucumbers, beans, peas, tomatoes, some squash need to be trellised so you need to get that in place before you plant. I have three tomatoes because that is all I need and I grow them on a trellis that is wrapped around the end buckets and the middle bucket sits between them. It takes up about 10 linear feet and I don't have them in the garden because they would take up too much space.
I have an overhead trellis for squash and I can grow beans and peas either on the tomato trellis or on the overhead trellis. I use tomato cages for the cucumber.
Watermelon, cantauloupe, most of the rambling squash vines take up a lot of space if they sprawl. Sugar baby is an icebox watermelon I do grow. They are just the right size at 11 lbs and the vines are about 6 ft and they can be trellised. I have trellised kabocha pumpkins and I have seen cantauloupes on a trellis but on the ground they take up a lot of space.
In a garden with limited space I would plant
3 tomatoes in cages. I don't like to prune. It is easier to manage them in 24-30 inch CRW cages and the cages are sturdy enough to support them.
Beans, peas, butternut squash, cucumbers need to also be on a trellis so set up your trellises first and figure out the linear feet you have and how much they can support.
Bush beans will give you beans all at once and then they are done but do not require a trellis
Zucchini can take up a lot of space a 36 inch circle for one plant. Vining zucchini would need a trellis
In the ground in the cool season
lettuce spaced 8-10 apart. Plant in succession every 2-3 weeks about the number of heads you can consume in a week for me that is about 8-10 heads.
Asian greens- 10 each pak choy, bok choy, tatsoi, mustard cabbage.
spinach. I harvest mine all at once since it freezes well so I plant a 2ft x 10 section and they mature in about 2 months
root crops carrots, beets, radish, daikon carrots, radish one inch apart. Beets and daikon 4 inches apart
Swiss chard, Kale - Truely the work horses of the garden. They are cut and come again so 1 or 2 chard will give you repeat harvest for months and so will kale. Kale is very cold hardy and doesn't mind a light dusting of snow.
Corn- It will take up most of my garden but I eat all of it. 4x4 block is minimum. 1-2 ears per plant. It is a space hog so you really have to want it.
Tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, squash, jicama, most of the herbs.
Tomatoes - 3 plants is a good number to start with. You can add more if you have more space and can use all the fruit.
Cucumbers. I can plant 4 in a CRW-30 inch tomato cage. Beans and peas. every 4 inches along a trellis. I usually only plant nine of each. They provide plenty but must be picked daily.
Jicama is a long season crop. It needs 150 days of heat. Only the tuber is edible so I plant it in a pot on a trellis.
Herbs can fit in anywhere there is extra space. Cilantro will only grow in cool weather.
I grow green onions, rosemary, thyme, in pots. I have in the ground lemon grass, chives, Jamaican oregano, Italian flat leaf parsley. In the cool season I can grow cilantro, chervil, and fenugreek. Borage will grow in early summer. Shiso will grow throughout the summer. I also plant sunflowers, nasturtiums and marigolds. They are attractive, attract beneficial insects and marigolds and nasturtiums are trap plants. Basil has to be downy mildew resistant.
Peppers and eggplant need heat to start so either sow indoors on a heat mat or wait until it is at least 68 degrees preferably 70 degrees before starting them.
Happy gardening in Hawaii. Gardens are where people grow.