Timing is important, especially for you in Minn, with shorter growing season.
tomatoes, a few different kinds (fruit,veggie,whatever lol)
lettuce (few different kinds
The carrots, peas, lettuce, and broccoli are all cool weather plants, can be planted as soon as the soil can be worked. Of those the only one I start indoors is the broccoli. I like to give the broccoli the head start because it is a little slower growing and it does not like hot weather, tends to flower instead of making heads, once it gets warm.
The corn, tomatoes, beans and cucumbers are warmer weather crops. Corn and beans are usually direct seeded in the ground once all danger of frost is past. Tomatoes most people start indoors to give them a head start, to have a longer season of producing tomatoes. It takes 3- 4 months from when you plant the seed to when you have actual ripe tomatoes. So you can see if you wait to plant the seeds outdoors after all danger of frost, you would just be getting your first ripe tomatoes and fall frosts would be threatening... Some people start cucumbers indoors, some don't. They are the last to go out, need the soil nice and warmed up, but they are quick growing, so there's not a huge advantage to starting them indoors.