I have parsley in a similar sized container and it does fine.
I think the catnip and cilantro are too big for your container-- both of them get to be three feet high and bushy and probably need more soil than that. (Cilantro has a deep taproot, so wouldn't work for that.)
green onions or chives should work
smaller herbs like oregano, tarragon, thyme would work. You could probably grow spinach that way, but you wouldn't get very much spinach in such a short row...
Mint doesn't care what size container it is in, though it will fill it up. My container like that, this year I planted (from seed) a couple parsley plants, a dill and a sage. They all did fine, but by next year, the sage will be the whole pot, and after that I might have to move the sage somewhere else and start over.