Yup, you sure did. Raspberries grow on second year canes. By cutting it all down last fall you cut off all the canes that would give you fruit this year.
All the canes that are coming up now will give you fruit next year, as long as you don't cut them down again.
Next year after the canes are dormant, cut down the ones that fruited, leaving the new first year canes alone to fruit the following year. They are easy to tell apart because first-year canes have green stems, while second-year canes have a thin, brown bark covering them.