Yes, bamboo will get out of hand in the ground even with barriers, it only slows the growth and does not stop it. I don't know how cold hardy bamboo is, but it is not easy to kill. Even when the wind knocks down the 100 ft green stripe bamboo, it grows back in a few months. Even after the bamboo blooms, only the older part of the clump dies, the younger parts remain and it takes a backhoe or bulldozer to get the roots out. Even bamboo in pots have to be watched and moved frequently or they will try to break through.
P.S. The smaller bamboos are mostly runners, the 100 ft bamboo are the clumpers, you still have to remove suckers at the edge of the patch all of the time and it isn't easy to do.
Happy gardening in Hawaii. Gardens are where people grow.