So you are saying you don't think I'll get any bulbs at all? Even if I leave them in the ground?
If you only planted them six weeks ago the plants barely had enough time to get established, so no don't expect much from this years attempt. Sometimes you read that Garlic can be planted in the spring but I have never had good results with this method.
Ordinarily I would suggest that you do not leave the bulbs/heads in the ground this year, that you must harvest, split and replant the individual cloves. If you leave whole heads to overwinter they will survive nicely but will grow into a group of plants next year. This group will be far too close and will not produce good sized heads next year.
Since your plants are so small you are in an unusual position, they may be too small to divide properly. In this odd situation you may be able to leave them undisturbed. Alex has a point about perhaps acquiring some larger cloves for replanting. Perhaps do both.
Ordinarily you should plant individual cloves late this summer for harvest around this time next year. The plants will begin to grow this fall, overwinter and resume growth next spring.
Also make sure you are growing an appropriate variety for your locality. Garlic is photoperiodic and relies on day length to induce bulb formation. If you are growing garlic from the supermarket it may not do well for you.